This report on the distribution of the Karystian cipollino marble throughout the former Roman Empire would never have happened without a chance meeting with Gerry Brisch and his suggestion that I should write, not a follow up article to the one I wrote in 2000 on the quarrying of the marble on the island of Euboea, but a book. So it is thanks to him that I have compiled this report on the very widespread use of this marble by the Romans and the use and reuse in later times.
Many people have helped and supported me in the task. As I have mentioned in the text, the archaeologist, the late Vronwy Hankey was the first to show me the location of cipollino quarries in the Karystos area and to suggest that I should look out for the marble on Roman sites which I visited. It is thanks to her that I started this search in the 1980s, when my husband and I were still living in Greece, and that I have continued it ever since. The late Hector Catling, former director of the British School in Athens, introduced me to Sara Paton, formerly Research Assistant to John Ward Perkins, a former Director of the British School of Archaeology in Rome, in his study of the Roman marble trade. It was she who made me aware that the quarrying of marble in the Karystia was a big part of this trade.
Friends and relatives have helped and encouraged me in my search for the Karystian marble. My late husband, Iain Sutherland, was with me in searches on the Roman sites in Greece and Turkey. Later, as I took up the search again, my sister-in-law, Dr Anne Sutherland, walked with me over the archaeological sites in North Africa and Italy. She also came with me to Westminster Cathedral, London, and to the quarries in the Karystos, Myloi and Styra areas, and probably in many others. She also helped to photograph and note the finds and afterwards read and commented on my text. My son, James, regularly acted as an adviser on the more scientific aspects of the report and took some of the early photographs of the quarries.
Friends such as Roz and Eric Schneider accompanied me on searches throughout the Karystos, Myloi, Marmari and Styra areas, sometimes going to places which I could not reach in the later years, to check and recheck the earlier visits. They have done this recently at the Marmari, Myloi and Kylindri quarries, walking up the steep mountain side and producing the photographs which are now included in Chapter I. They also revisited and rechecked the cipollino findings in Istanbul (particularly in St Sophia but also in the Kariye Mosque and the Church of St John Studion) and they put me in touch with Jennifer Tobin who had published her work in Cilicia. I am very grateful to her for the information which she sent me on the cipollino in Kucuk Burnaz. Roz and Eric also patiently read the text as it evolved and corrected discrepancies in facts and architectural terms. Roz, a classicist and archaeologist was especially equipped to point out mistakes which I might make, as I had not been trained in archaeology and classical studies.
Dr Jane Grayson visited Paphos in Cyprus, took photographs and made notes on the archaeological remains near the Chrisopolitissa Basilica. She came on the tour to Tunisia in 2009 and later drove me to Lower Kingswood and helped to collect material at the Church of the Wisdom of God.
Professor Andrew Wallace-Hadrill, Director of the Herculaneum Conservation Project, encouraged me to go to Pompeii and Herculaneum to look for cipollino and arranged for me to meet up with his team there. I am grateful to my daughter, Alex Sutherland, for introducing me to him. Dr Sophie Canteneur showed us round the site and particularly explained the work being done in the House of the Telephus Relief, where there is much cipollino in the Marble Room. We were able to see the report made on the use of polychrome marble on the site by the intern at the Restoration Project, Angela Savalli and also copies of her emails to Professor Wallace-Hadrill, listing the areas at Herculaneum where there is opus sectile flooring with cipollino.
My friends, Sandra and Rodney Shields, carried out the research for cipollino in Venice and produced the photographs in the Ca’ d’Oro (The House of Gold), the Church of San Salvador and the Basilica of St Marks. Kathy and Geoffrey Murrell compiled the report on the church of Santa Maria in Porto, San Apollinare in Clase and San Giovanni in Ravenna. My friend, the late Elaine Dare, took the photograph of the marble column at Cefalu.
In London I am grateful to many people who organised my visits to places where there is cipollino. This includes the archivist at the Athenaeum, Ms Jennie De Protani, who organised the visit and also helped me to measure the panels of cipollino; in 2000 Nicholas and Anna Jarrold had put me in touch with the librarian, Sarah Dodgson, who provided the information contained in the article on the Athenaeum from the October 1999 edition of the magazine Apollo by Bruce Boucher. The archivist at the Drapers’ Hall, Ms Penny Fussell, arranged my visit, showed me the booklet on the building and provided me with the copy of the picture of the landing which I have used in Chapter 8. Mr Charles Henty, Secondary of London, Under Sheriff, High Bailiff of Southwark at the Old Bailey, who arranged my visit, also walked round the building with me and explained which marble was thought to be genuine Karystian cipollino and which not.
Many years ago Ms Kate Crowe of Records Department kindly sent me details of the Durbar court in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, where there is cipollino marble in the flooring, and of the Church of the Wisdom of God at Lower Kingswood. Mr Graham Holland arranged for me to revisit the Durbar Court in April 2013 to take my own photographs. In Edinburgh, Dr Margaret Addly patiently took me twice to her parish church, St Peter’s at Falcon Place, Edinburgh, where she had noticed that there was cipollino marble. In the summer of 2012 my other daughter, Liz Sutherland, and her partner, Stephen McCarthy took me to Norwich to visit Surrey House where is the remarkable Marble Hall with 24 columns of cipollino. Steve helped to make and later to unravel with me the copious notes on the marble cladding of the stairs and landing. He also made the copies of the maps of the Roman Empire and produced improved versions of some of the other illustrations.
I am extremely grateful to Ros Band, without whose help in the last few weeks before finishing the book, I would not have successfully completed the accurate listing, naming and noting in the text of the over 500 illustrations.
I hope that I have included all the friends and relatives who have patiently listened to me ‘going on’ about cipollino marble and who often, as a result, have helped to find some or produced evidence themselves. Many apologies are due to anyone who has inadvertently not been recognised.
Thanks are due to Elsevier and to Don Keller for the reuse of maps of Euboea and of the main quarries (Figs 1 & 2), and to Elsevier for the reuse of the diagram of the main column in the Aetos quarry (Fig 3 – produced by my sister in law), originally used in the article published in the Journal of Cultural Heritage 3 in 2002; to FMR-ART’è Ricci editore for the use of Tavola III, From Corsi’s Delle Pietre Antiche de Faustino Corsi romano 2002, showing the six most common forms of Karystian cipollino marble (Plate 1.1); to G. Bell & Sons Ltd, the editors of Moses Hadas’ book, The History of Rome, for the use of Maps of the Roman Empire at Caesar’s and Trajan’s death (Figs 5 & 6); to Professor Andrew Wallace-Hadrill for the use of his image of the cipollino basin or labrum in the Suburban Baths at Herculaneum (Plate 2.85); to the Azienda Autonoma di Cura, Soggioorno e Turismo of the Island of Capri for the use of three illustrations from the Guide to the Ancient Monuments of the Island of Capri (Fig 8) and Plates 2.98 and 2.102); to Akşit Kültür Turizm Sanat Ajans Ltd.Şti for the use of the plan of Hagia Sophia in their guidebook (Fig 12); to Art & Archaeological Publications for the photograph of the inner narthex in Robert Ousterhout’s book on the Kariye Mosque, (Plate 4.15); to Darf Publishers, London, for the map of the Libya coastline, showing archaeological sites (Fig 13) and the plan of Sabratha (Fig 14); to the editors of the Rough Guide to Tunisia for the map of Tunisia (Fig 16), and plans of Dougga (Fig 17) and Thuburbo Maius (Fig 18); to http:/en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Plan_von_Poempeji-Mau.jpg for the Map of the Forum of Pompeii with the chart of the statues of the Roman Emperors (Fig 7), second half 19th century, by August Mau; and to the editors of Oremus, The Magazine of Westminster Cathedral, for the diagram of the cathedral. (Fig 19).
Measurements of columns and large pieces of cipollino are given in metres and Roman feet (Rf), except for the more modern use of the marble, when they are given only in metres.
A Roman foot = 29.6 cms.