LEBANON


Sidon and Tyre
As already mentioned in the introduction I am indebted to Vronwy Hankey, the archaeologist who died in May 1998, for introducing me to the quarrying of cipollino marble on the island of Euboea. After her return to the UK she sent me a copy of her article, ‘A Marble Quarry at Karystos’, together with notes and additions about where else to look for cipollino marble and its export throughout the former Roman Empire. The best that I can do to provide information on the presence of cipollino in the Lebanon is to quote from Hankey’s very short reference and to show copies of her plates of the cipollino which exists in Tyre and Sidon. On p. 58 of her article she writes of the five columns lying on the mountainside above Myloi a few metres from the cliff edge. ‘Each of these columns, like the cipollino columns at Tyre, has a central drill hole at either end’ (plate III 9 for Myli), (Plates V.17, V.18 and VI.19 at Tyre) and (Plate VI. 20 Column at Sidon (my Plates 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 & 7.4). 13


Lazzarini also makes reference to cipollino in Tyre in Chapter 12 of his book on marble. ‘Another moment of high extraction fervour arrived with Septimus Severus and his successors at which time marble from the quarries was sent, not only to Rome and through Italy, but took other directions, notably to the orient and to North Africa. It quickly becomes the case that the columns most frequently used, and in the greatest number, were of cipollino, for example at Tyre, Thuburbo Maius (Tunisia), the grand colonnade of the Severan forum at Leptis Magna, in the fons scenae at Taormina (Sicily) and the porticus in summa cava at Leptis Magna’. 14

13 Hankey, V., ‘A Marble Quarry at Karystos’, pp.54 & 58.

14 Lazzarini, L., p.185.

Maps and Plates

Plate 7.1.jpg

Plates 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 & 7,4 Cipollino columns at Tyre and Sidon. (Photos - Vronwy Hankey, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth).

Plate 7.2.jpg

Plates 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 & 7,4 Cipollino columns at Tyre and Sidon. (Photos - Vronwy Hankey, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth).

Plate 7.3.jpg

Plates 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 & 7,4 Cipollino columns at Tyre and Sidon. (Photos - Vronwy Hankey, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth).

Plate 7.4.jpg

Plates 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 & 7,4 Cipollino columns at Tyre and Sidon. (Photos - Vronwy Hankey, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth).