Pergamon was an ancient Greek city located 160 miles from the Aegean on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakirçay), that became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 281-133 BC. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome.
Pergamon, situated further north on the Aegean coast, is quite different from the very urban atmosphere of Ephesus. The ruins of Pergamon are scattered across the hill and the citadel and are of a generally larger and more colossal scale, including the theatre of Trajan, the Arsenal and the Sanctuaries of Demeter and of Hera.
Three kilometres south of the Acropolis, down in the valley, was the sanctuary of Asklepius, the god of healing, where people with health problems could come to bathe in the water of the sacred spring. Below the citadel are the extensive ruins of the Asklepeion and in a row of columns along the road leading to it there are two fragments of cipollino columns set on concave scotia and a square plinth and with collars at the base. The taller one measures 2.5 m. /8.44 Rf high and is numbered A65 206, the second is numbered A65 103. They measure .48 m. /1.62 Rf in diameter above the collar (Plates 4.5 & 4.6).
Maps and Plates
Plate 4.5 Two incomplete cipollino columns in the Aesklepion, Pergamon.
Plate 4.6 Close up one of the cipollino columns in the Aesklepion, Pergamon.